Monday, May 25, 2020

Family Law Paralegals and Victims of Domestic Violence

Family Law Paralegals and Victims of Domestic Violence Working with victims of domestic violence can be an extremely rewarding and fulfilling endeavor. One of the most crucial aspects for a paralegal working with victim of domestic violence is adequately engaging in the task of educating oneself to understand the commonalities of such victims and the ordeals that they have been through. Such clients are drastically different from other individuals who have suffered other physical and violent crimes. Understanding the background of someone who has lived through domestic violence is absolutely central to being able to provide adequate and sensitive legal care. Most victims of domestic violence are women (95%) though domestic violence can have an impact on ever age, class, race, ethnic, cultural or religious group (purplerainfoundation, 2012). In the United States, nearly one in three adult women experience at least one physical assault by a partner during adulthood (American Psychological Association, Presidential Task Force on Violence an d the Family 1996 Report) (purplerainfoundation, 2012). These women are often terrified of their partners temper, apologize when they are abused and often in the most extremely controlling and isolated environment where the abusive partner will control who the partner sees and where the partner goes outside of the home, jealous of outside relationships (purplerainfoundation, 2012). In these abusive relationships the women are hit,Show MoreRelatedThe District Attorney s Office973 Words   |  4 Pagesattorneys, investigators, forensic analysts, paralegals, clerical workers and volunteers. There are relatively 190 prosecutors in the District Attorney’s Office and are assigned to diverse specialized teams. The District Attorney’s Office prosecutes over 40,000 cases yearly, these cases include criminal, fraud, elder abuse, burglary, robbery, sexual assault, domestic violence, gang violence and murder. â€Å"The Domestic Violence Unit of the Family Violence Division is ov erseen by Santa Clara County DistrictRead MoreNstp Handouts13038 Words   |  53 Pagescontinually re-chosen as a person matures. As a person grows, he/she is continually choosing values and fashioning his/her hierarchy of values. Looking at the problems being faced by every Filipino at this point, one can surmise that oppression, violence, greed, exploitation, environmental degradation and corruption are by-products of a decrepit and twisted value system. As Filipinos, we should realize that if we want to see a better Philippines, we should break this culture of corruption and oppressionRead MoreStudy Guide Essay25129 Words   |  101 Pagescompletion of this course, students will be able to: Learning Resources †¢ Answer the question, â€Å"What is human resource management?† †¢ Describe the basic methods of collecting job analysis information. †¢ Discuss the major federal labor relations laws. †¢ Describe the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission enforcement process. †¢ Explain each of the steps in establishing market-competitive pay rates. Textbook: A Framework for Human Resource Management 7th Edition, 2013 Gary Dessler PearsonRead MoreDarden Mba Resumes16768 Words   |  68 PagesAviation Brigade †¢ Executed all human resource management tasks and responsibilities associated with redeploying a Combat Aviation Brigade from Germany to Fort Riley, Kansas, which resulted in the successful move of over 1,500 soldiers and their families from nine different locations in Germany and Italy. †¢ Personally carried out all tasks associated with deploying 37 soldiers to Pakistan following an earthquake, which resulted in a 35% reduction in the time to fly aid to inaccessible areas. PlatoonRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesLibrary How Well Do I Respond to Turbulent Change? 578 Myth or Science? â€Å"Men Experience More Job Stress Than Women† 596 Self-Assessment Library How Stressful Is My Life? 600 An Ethical Choice Responsibly Managing Your Own Stress 601 glOBalization! Work– Family Stress in Different Cultures 604 Point/Counterpoint Responsible Managers Relieve Stress on Their Employees 607 Questions for Review 608 Experiential Exercise Power and the Changing Environment 608 Ethical Dilemma Changes at WPAC 609 Case Incident

Friday, May 15, 2020

Case Study on a Pastors Right to Freedom of Speech

The pastor’s right to freedom of speech is justified by the harm principle and the necessity for truth in a democratic society. John Stuart Mill presents a liberal view for the defense of free speech in favour for the fullest liberty to debate (1978, 15). Yet, Mill’s harm principle states the government can rightfully interfere with the pastor’s freedom of expression under the condition to prevent harm to the homosexual community (pg. 9) One problem that emerges is the lack of a universal consensus on among scholarly work on what constitutes hate speech. Boyle argues hate speech, â€Å"is intended to entice hatred or violence† (Boyle Freedom 6-7). While, Mill’s â€Å"On Liberty† provides a strong liberal view that makes it difficult to argue that hate speech directly causes any violence or interference of the homosexual’s community’s liberty, which is supported by the notorious corn dealer example. The pastor’s portrayal that homosexuals are dangerous and comparable to cancer would not be considered harm, as he does not advice to inflict physical harm u pon the homosexual community. In particular, psychological damage is far harder to argue in terms of legal rights compared to physical damage. Even if the homosexual community are psychologically harmed by pastor remarks, Jacobson (2000) notes Mill would be resilient to placing any sort of limits on the freedom of speech. Hence, freedom of speech should be defended as, â€Å"silenced opinion be an error it may, and very commonly does,Show MoreRelatedThe Separation Of Church And State Of Government970 Words   |  4 Pagespersonal matter. The Bill Of Rights was quickly amended to the Constitution in order to protect the rights of citizens because the original Constitution primarily just defined the powers of government. The third Article of the Bill of Rights (which became the first amendment). â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Amend. 1) This shows that there is absolute religious freedom. Along with religious freedom, the founding fathers call forRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement Essay1634 Words   |  7 Pagesland of the free.† The statement â€Å"land of the free† hasn’t always been the case for African-Americans. But fortunately, America is â€Å"the home of the brave† and through trials and tribulations they were able to achieve equality. Dating back to 1619 the first African-Americans were sold into slavery at Jamestown. Being a slave meant you were a human being owned by another and as slaves they were deprived of most of their rights as an American and were treated as a peace of property. Many more African-AmericansRead MoreIs Hate A Crime?1322 Words   |  6 Pagesand marching up and down the street in front of my school. Looks like it is not just history anymore. It is reality, and that reality is waiting outside my school for the final bell to ring. My dad says, â€Å"By law, in America everyone has the freedom of speech and that includes people who hate you, insult you, and discriminate against you.† I have never understood how people can hate other people they have never met to the extent of harming them simply because they are different. The bell rings, andRead MoreHistory and Accomplishments of Martin Luther King, Jr.1453 Words   |  6 PagesJr. was born on January 15, 1929. In Atlanta, Georgia. He played a huge role in ending racism. Martin created the civil rights act of 1964 and the voting rights act of 1965. He received a noble peace prize in 1964, among several other awards. King was assassinated in April 1968. He is remembered as one of the greatest African American leaders in history. His most famous speech was â€Å"I Have a Dream.† Early Years Martin Luther King Jr’s. dad was the middle child of Michael King Sr. and Albert KingRead MoreChina s Sudden Growth And Rise Of A Economic Superpower1290 Words   |  6 PagesMao Zedong’s communist party and Chiang Kai-shek’s Kuomintang regime. Their rivalry brought about concerns of the possibility of a civil war between the parties that might leave China even weaker and in greater disrepair than before. And they were right to be concerned. To the Chinese’s dismay the two parties launched a civil war with the objective of controlling all of China. Throughout World War II there had only been small squabbles between the in place Kuomintang regime and the rebel communistRead MoreShould Religious Education Be Public Schools?1719 Words   |  7 Pagesreligion. Additionally, to not include the idea of a creator in our idea of the world’s conception is deemed unconstitutional and senseless. According to the First amendment, no law should prohibit the p ractice of religion nor should it affect freedom of speech. Creationism should not excluded from classrooms where actual interest for the theory exist. In fact, in a recent poll that included thousands of Americans, it was found that that twenty percent were open to evolution, sixteen percent were openRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr.2405 Words   |  10 PagesJr. was a Baptist minister and social activist, who led the Civil Rights Movement in the United States from the mid-1950s until his death by assassination in 1968. IN THESE GROUPS NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WINNERS FAMOUS PEOPLE WHO DIED IN 1968 FAMOUS PEOPLE WHO WENT TO PRISON FAMOUS CAPRICORNS Show All Groups 1 of 19  «  » QUOTES â€Å"But we come here tonight to be saved from that patience that makes us patient with anything less than freedom and justice.† —Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther KingRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement Essay3359 Words   |  14 Pagespolitical leaders. A prime example would be President Barack Obama, the first African American president of the United States of America. But first we must ask ourselves, how did this occur? Who lead African Americans to better living standards? Civil rights leaders, such as Sojourner Truth, Harriet Tubman, and Rosa Parks, just to name a few. However, among these great names in history, there is one that stands out, and that man is Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Dr. King gave hope to those in need withRead MoreHistory of Civil Rights in America Essay1515 Words   |  7 Pagesbright and ominous as we as a nation have been openly discriminating against African-Americans for many years. For nearly as many years as Americans have been discriminating against African-Americans, people have been fighting for some form of equal rights for everyone, especially the African-Americ ans. History has shown that African-Americans have had some of the most valuable personal contributions that invariably led to the balancing of the tides of the American population. People are always theRead MoreThe Importance Of Freedom Of Speech2047 Words   |  9 PagesAmericas first amendment which consists of the rights that Americans have and one of those rights being Freedom of speech. Today, many Americans are taking advantage of that right and the poster children taking advantage are the NFL players. They are kneeling during the national anthem and are claiming its because of racial issues. Americans are saying otherwise and consider the act to be disrespectful to those who fought for the rights of Americans Citizens. People on the defensive side of the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Organizational Behaviorial Case Study - 4431 Words

Organizational Behavioral Study for Adobe Systems Incorporated University of Phoenix School of Advanced Studies Abstract Adobe Systems Incorporated is committed to innovation. In 1982, Chuck Geschke and John Warnock founded Adobe when they set out to solve the problem of getting text and images on a computer screen. In 1983 they launched Adobe Post Script and were embraced as industry visionaries and leaders. Adobe’s Portable Document Format or PDF provided solutions for businesses and allowed enterprises to use this format in a secure manner. Adobe Systems is the leading provider of graphic design, publishing, and imaging software for Web and print production. The research for this paper shows Adobe Systems Incorporated commitment to†¦show more content†¦This study contributes to highlighting and substantiating Adobes assertions. The study will identify the additional steps Adobe will need to take to build its competitive advantage and increase its market share. Adobe will also use the additional information provided by this study to increase the performance of the entire organization. The information obtained from this study will offer a wide variety of information from its current diverse work force. Gathering this information will also, help the organization understand if the operational structure currently used is effective enough to sustain growth or identify if a change in the way the organization operation needs to be made. In addition, this study will provide vital information as it pertains to the way the organization runs during both a stable and/or unstable environment. Understanding how the organization operates in either situation will offer information needed to make the proper adjustments during unstable periods so that there is little to no loss of market share due to unknown obstacles. When times are good this information will give the organization the right information to sustain during stable times and not let an upward spike in performance fall by taking advantage of good times. In the end, taking the right steps to use information from within a diverse workforce will have a continued benefit for any organization. The willingness to use the information in this study will show Adobe’sShow MoreRelatedThe Ethical Dilemma Involving Many Co Operations And It Is Trust3182 Words   |  13 Pagesconduct to employees by direct communication, support and making decisions. This paper will look at the various literature of how transformational, charismatic and authentic leadership, and decision making play a big part in ethical leadership. A case study of Enron will show the ethical dilemma the company faced with its leaders and also the different leadership styles they had which brought the company to its demise. 2. ETHICAL LEADERSHIP AND DECISION MAKING Overview Ethical leadership is labeledRead MoreA critical analysis of Tanzanite I’s service recovery issue – A study related to Jain University’s2700 Words   |  11 Pages A critical analysis of Tanzanite I’s service recovery issue – A study related to Jain University’s international visit to Milan. Table of contents 1. Introduction 2 2. Literature review 3 2.1 Service Recovery Paradox 4 2.2 Customer Responses to Service Failures 4 2.3 Conceptual model 5 2.4 Impact of culture 5 3. Analysis 6 3.1 Failure Context 6 3.2 Magnitude of Failure 7 3.3 Recovery Attributes 7 3.4 Cross-culturalRead MoreThe Causes of Project Failure6643 Words   |  27 Pageslittle reason to adopt such a pessimistic view today, if we can gain knowledge about the nature and causes of project failure, we will improve our ability to implement projects. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the results of a recent study that was performed to determine if there exist patterns of causes of project failure depending on three contingency variables, 1) the way in which failure is defined, 2 ) the type of project being studied; and 3) the stage of the project’s life cycleRead MorePest in Brazil4902 Words   |  20 PagesINTUNES IN BRAZIL THE ITUNES ONLINE MUSIC STORE FEASIBILITY STUDY TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 2 INTRODUCTION 3 MACRO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 7 MARKETING MIX 5 HOFSTEDE MODEL ANALYSIS 6 BEHAVIORIAL IMPLICAITONS 7 CONCLUSION 8 INTRODUCTION The landscape of music industry sales has changed within the last 5 years with the changing technologyRead MoreApple Pricing Strategy9004 Words   |  37 PagesCASE STUDY: APPLE Chapter 7: Pricing Contents A. Understanding Pricing 4 1. Internal and External Considerations Affecting Price Decisions 5 1.1. Internal factors 5 1.2. External Factors 9 2. Setting The Price 10 B. Introduction to Apple 13 1. Product 14 2. Promotion 15 3. Place 16 4. Price 17 C. IPHONE 19 1. Introduction to iPhone 19 1.1 Main Features 19 1.2 Market share 20 2. Pricing Strategy of Apple’s IPhone 21 2.1 High Reference Pricing 21 2

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Awakening free essay sample

A review of the novel, The Awakening by Kate Chopin, with a focus on men and the quality of life. (more) The Awakening free essay sample # 8211 ; Robin Williams Essay, Research Paper Throughout the film The Awakening, Robin Williams demonstrates his cognition of the scientific method. The scientific method is a process of stairss that is used to turn out jobs. In the film it is used to demo that patients enduring from an un-named upset do hold a little chance to return to their normal province of being. The scientific method is a list of stairss to turn out something and do into a jurisprudence or theory based on your concluding merchandise and findings. It is composed of several stairss, it starts with observations. Observations are where a individual collects known informations refering what you are traveling to prove on. Next they formulate a hypothesis based on their observations. After they have a hypothesis they perform several experiments to turn out or confute it. After this, they so organize a theory and experiment based on their hypothesis. More observations and experiments follow this, until they eventually come to a decision which is called a jurisprudence. Throughout the film The Awakening, Robin Williams uses the observation, hypotheses and experimenting stairss in the scientific method. Observations included, detecting the exanimate behaviour shown by the patients, their physiological reactions to traveling objects, and the fact that they all had instances of phrenitis before. After he did all the research he formed several hypot Hes and experimented to turn out them. Robin Williams used stroboscope visible radiations, talked to them, measured their encephalon forms, and used games such as a Ouija board to turn out some of his hypotheses. After he formed several hypotheses and experimented with them, he came across an article that explained how the usage of a certain type of medical specialty which was used to handle a disease related to the 1 that he was look intoing. He tried administering the medical specialty to one of his patients, and observed the consequences. The patient demonstrated normal, human conditions and seemed to hold no side effects. He so made a jurisprudence that stated the medical specialty helped his patient, and gave it to all the patients in the ward. However, his observations were wrong and the side effects were lay waste toing. This is how Robin Williams demonstrated the stairss of the scientific method throughout the film The Awakenings. In decision, I enjoyed this film really much, and the manner the scientific method was used in a existent life state of affairs. The film proved that even though person follows the scientific method, there is still a opportunity that the process will non work every clip. For a theory to go a jurisprudence, the result must be the same every clip. Even though Robin Williams thought his hypothesis was full cogent evidence, the move proved that it is really hard for some thing to go a jurisprudence.

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Background information about waste disposal practices Essays

Background information about waste disposal practices Essays Background information about waste disposal practices Paper Background information about waste disposal practices Paper A primary objective of waste management today is to protect the public and the environment from potentially harmful effects of waste. Some waste materials are normally safe, but can become hazardous if not managed properly. For example, 1 gal (3. 75 1) of used motor oil can potentially contaminate one million gal (3,790,000 1) of drinking water . Every individual, business, or organization must make decisions and take some responsibility regarding the management of his or her waste. On a larger scale, government agencies at the local, state, and federal levels enact and enforce regulations governing waste management. These agencies also educate the public about proper waste management. In addition, local government agencies may provide disposal or recycling services, or they may hire or authorize private companies to perform those functions. Throughout history, there have been four basic methods of managing waste: dumping it, burning it, finding another use for it (reuse and recycling), and not creating the waste in the first place (waste prevention). How those four methods are utilized depends on the wastes being managed. Municipal solid waste is different from industrial, agricultural, or mining waste. Hazardous waste is a category that should be anteed separately, although it sometimes is generated with the other types. The first humans did not worry much about waste management. They simply left their garbage where it dropped. However, as permanent communities developed, people began to dispose of their waste in designated dumping areas. The use of such open dumps for garbage is still common in many parts of the world. Open dumps have major disadvantages, however, especially in heavily populated areas. Toxic chemicals can filter down through a dump and contaminate groundwater . The liquid that filters through a dump or landfill is called leached. Dumps may also generate methane, a flammable and explosive gas produced when organic wastes decompose under anaerobic (oxygen-poor) conditions. The landfill, also known as the sanitary landfill, was invented in England in the 1 sass. Ata landfill, the garbage is compacted and covered at the end of every day with several inches of soil . Landfill became common in the united States in the sass. By the late sass, it was the dominant method for disposing municipal solid waste in the nation. Early landfills had significant problems with leached and methane, but those have largely been resolved at facilities built since about he early 1 sass. Well-engineered landfills are lined with several feet of clay and with thick plastic sheets. Leached is collected at the bottom, drained through pipes, and processed. Methane gas is also safely piped out of many landfills. The dumping of waste does not just take place on land. Ocean dumping, in which barges carry garbage out to sea, was once used as a disposal method by some United States coastal cities and is still practiced by some nations. Sewage sludge, or waste material from sewage treatment, was dumped at sea in huge quantities by New York City as recently as 1 992, but his is now prohibited in the United States. Also called bossily, sewage sludge is not generally considered solid waste, but it is sometimes composted with organic municipal solid waste. Burning has a long history in municipal solid waste management. Some American cities began to burn their garbage in the late nineteenth century in devices called crematory. These Were not very efficient, however, and cities went back to dumping and other methods. In the 1 sass and sass, many cities built new types of more-efficient garbage burners known as incinerators. The early incinerators were rather dirty in arms of their emissions of air pollutants, and beginning in the sass they were gradually shut down. However, in the 1 9705, waste burning enjoyed another revival. These newer incinerators, many of which are still in operation, are called resource recovery or waste-to-energy plants. In addition to burning garbage, they produce heat or electricity that can be used in nearby buildings or residences, or sold to a utility. Many local governments became interested in waste-to-energy plants following the energy crisis in 1973. However, since the mid-1 sass, it became difficult to find locations to lid these facilities, mainly because of public opposition focused on air- quality issues. Another problem with incineration is that it generates ash, which must be landfill. Incinerators usually reduce the volume of garbage by 70-90%. The remainder of the incinerated waste comes out as ash that often contains high concentrations of toxic substances. Municipal solid waste will likely always be landfill or burned to some extent. In the past 25 years, however, non-disposal methods such as waste prevention and recycling have become more common. Because of public concerns and the high costs of entangling and burning (especially to build new facilities), local governments want to reduce the amount of waste that must be disposed in these ways. Municipal solid waste is a relatively small part of the overall waste generated in the United States. More than 95% of the total 4. 5 billion tons of solid waste generated in the United States each year is agricultural, mining, or industrial waste. These wastes do not receive nearly as much attention as municipal solid waste, because most people do not have direct experience with them. Also, agricultural and mining wastes, which make up 88% of the overall total f solid waste, are largely handled at the places they are generated, that is, in the fields or at remote mining sites. Mining nearly always generates substantial waste, whether the material being mined is coal , clay, sand , gravel, building stone, or metallic ore. Early mining concentrated on the richest lodes of minerals . Because modern methods of mining are more efficient, they can extract the desired minerals from veins that are less rich. However, much more waste is produced in the process. Many of the plant and animal wastes generated by agriculture remain in the fields or rangelands. These wastes can be beneficial because they return organic matter and nutrients to the soil. However, modern techniques of raising large numbers of animals in small areas generate huge volumes of animal waste, or manure. Waste in such concentrated quantities must be managed carefully, or it can contaminate groundwater or surface water. Industrial wastes that are not hazardous have traditionally been sent to landfills or incinerators. The rising cost of disposal has prompted many companies to seek alternative methods for handling these Wastes, such as Waste prevention and recycling. Often a manufacturing plant can reclaim certain east materials by feeding them back into the production process. Hazardous wastes are materials considered harmful or potentially harmful to human health or the environment. Wastes may be deemed hazardous because they are poisonous, flammable, or corrosive, or because they react with other substances in a dangerous way. Industrial operations have produced large quantities of hazardous waste for hundreds of years. Some hazardous wastes, such as mercury and dioxins, may be released as gases or vapors. Many hazardous industrial wastes are in liquid form. One of the greatest risks is that these wastes will contaminate water supplies. An estimated 60% of all hazardous industrial waste in the United States is disposed using a method called deep-well injection. With this technique, liquid wastes are injected through a well into an impervious reconfirmation that keeps the waste isolated from groundwater and surface water. Other methods of underground burial are also used to dispose hazardous industrial waste and other types of dangerous material. Pesticides used in farming may contaminate agricultural waste. Because of the enormous volumes of pesticides used in agriculture, the proper handling of unused pesticides is a daunting challenge for waste managers. Certain mining techniques also utilize toxic chemicals. Piles of mining and metal-processing waste, known as waste rock and tailings, may contain hazardous substances. Because of a reaction with the oxygen in the air, large amounts of toxic acids may form in waste rock and tailings and leach into surface waters. Public attitudes also play a pivotal role in decisions about waste management. Virtually every proposed new landfill or waste-to-energy plant is opposed by people who live near the site. Public officials and planners refer to this reaction as NIMBI, which stands for Not In My Backyard If an opposition group becomes vocal r powerful enough, a city or county council is not likely to approve a proposed waste-disposal project. The public also wields considerable influence with businesses. Recycling and waste prevention initiatives enjoy strong public support. About 19% of United States municipal solid waste was recycled or composted in 1 994, was incinerated, and 71 % was landfill. Preventing or reducing waste is typically the least expensive method for managing waste. Waste prevention may also reduce the amount of resources needed to manufacture or package a product. For example, most roll-on deodorants once came in a plastic bottle, which was inside a box. Beginning about 1 992, deodorant manufacturers redesigned the bottle so that it would not tip-over easily on store shelves, which eliminated the need for the box as packaging. This is the type of waste prevention called source reduction. It can save businesses money, while also reducing waste. Waste prevention includes many different practices that result in using fewer materials or products, or using materials that are less toxic. For example, a chain of clothing stores can ship its products to its Stores in reusable garment bags, instead of disposable lactic bags. Manufacturers of household batteries can reduce the amount of mercury in their batteries. In an office, employees can copy documents on both sides of a sheet of paper, instead of just one side. A family can use cloth instead of paper napkins. Composting grass clippings and tree leaves at home, rather than having them picked up for disposal or municipal composting, is another form of waste prevention. A resident can leave grass clippings on the lawn after mowing (this is known as grass-cycling), or can compost leaves and grass in a backyard composting bin, or use them as a mulch in the garden. When the current recycling boom began in the late sass, markets for the recyclables were not sufficiently considered. A result was that some recyclable materials were collected in large quantities but could not be sold, and some ended up going to landfills. Today, the development of recycling markets is a high priority. Close the loop is a catch-phrase in recycling education; it means that true recycling (I. E. , the recycling loop) has not taken place until the new product is purchased and used. To boost recycling markets, many local and state governments now require that their own agencies purchase and use products made from cycled materials. In a major step Fontana for recycling, President Bill Cloudiness an executive order in 1993 requiring the federal government to use more recycled products. Many managers of government recycling programs feel that manufacturers should take more responsibility for the disposal of their products and packaging rather than letting municipalities bear the brunt of the disposal costs. An innovative and controversial law in Germany requires manufacturers to set up collection and recycling programs for disused packaging of their products. The high cost of government-created recycling programs is often criticized. Supporters of recycling argue it is still less expensive than landfill or incineration, when all costs are considered. Another concern about recycling is that the recycling process itself may generate hazardous wastes that must be treated and disposed. Recycling of construction and demolition (CD) debris is one of the growth areas for recycling. Although CD debris is not normally considered a type of municipal solid waste, millions of tons of it have gone to municipal landfills over the years. If this material is separated at the construction or demolition site into separate piles of concrete, wood, and steel, it can usually e recycled. Composting is considered either a form of recycling, or a close relative. Composting occurs when organic waste-? such as yard waste, food waste, and paper-?is broken down by microbial processes. The resulting material, known as compost, can be used by landscapers and gardeners to improve the fertility of their soil. Yard waste, primarily grass clippings and tree leaves, makes up about one-fifth of the weight of municipal solid waste. Some states do not allow this waste to be disposed. These yard-waste bans have resulted in rapid growth for municipal composting programs. In these orgasm, yard waste is collected by trucks (separately from garbage and recyclables) and taken to a composting plant, where it is chopped up, heaped, and regularly turned until it becomes compost. Waste from food-processing plants and produce trimmings from grocery stores are composted in some parts of the country. Residential food waste is the next frontier for composting. The city of Halifax, in Canada, collects food waste from households and composts it in large, central facilities. Biological treatment, a technique for handling hazardous wastes, could be called a high-tech form of composting. Like composting biological treatment employs microbes to break down wastes through a series of metabolic reactions. Many substances that are toxic, carcinogenic (cancer-causing), or undesirable in the environment for other reasons can be rendered harmless through this method. Extensive research on biological treatment is in progress. Genetic engineering, a controversial branch of biology dealing with the modification of genetic codes, is closely linked with biological treatment, and could produce significant advances in this field. Waste management became a particularly expensive proposition during the 1 9905, especially for disposal. Consequently, waste managers constantly seek innovations that will improve efficiency and reduce costs. Several new ideas in land-filling involve the reclamation of useful resources from wastes. For example, instead of just burning or releasing the methane gas that is generated within solid-waste landfills, some operators collect this gas, and then use it to produce power locally or sell it as fuel. At a few landfills, managers have experimented with a bold but relatively untested concept known as landfill mining. This involves digging up an existing landfill to recover recyclable materials, and sometimes o re-bury the garbage more efficiently. Landfill mining has been criticized as costly and impractical, but some operators believe it can save money under certain circumstances. In the high-tech world of incineration, new designs and concepts are constantly being tried. One waste-to-energy technology for solid waste being introduced to the United States is called fluoride-bed incineration. About 40% of incinerators in Japan use this technology, which is designed to have lower emissions of some air pollutants than conventional incinerators. A 1 994 United States Supreme Court ruling could increase the cost of incineration significantly. The Court ruled that some ash produced by municipal solid-waste incinerators must be treated as a hazardous waste, because of high levels of toxic substances such as lead and cadmium. This means that incinerator ash now has to be tested, and part or all of the material may have to go to a hazardous waste landfill rather than a standard landfill. A much smaller type of incinerator is used at many hospitals to burn medical wastes, such as blood, surgical waste, syringes, and laboratory waste. The safety of these medical waste incinerators has become a major issue in some communities. A study by the Environmental Protection Agency released n 1 994 found that medical waste incinerators were leading sources of dioxin emissions into the air. The same study warned that dioxins, which can be formed by the burning of certain chemical compounds, pose a high risk of causing cancer and other health hazards in humans. The greatest impetus for waste prevention will likely come from the public. More and more citizens will come to understand that pesticides, excessive packaging, and the use of disposable rather than durable items have important environmental costs. Through the growth of the information society, knowledge about these and other environmental issues will increase. This should result in a continuing evolution towards more efficient and environmentally sensitive waste management. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is a distinct practice from resource recovery which focuses on delaying the rate of consumption of natural resources. All waste materials, whether they are solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive fall within the emit of waste management. Waste management practices can differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management of non-hazardous waste residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local superconductivitys, while management for non- hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator subject to local, national or international authorities. Waste collection methods vary widely among different countries and regions. Domestic waste collection services are often provided by local government authorities, or by private companies in the industry. Some areas, especially those in less developed countries, do not have a formal waste-collection system. Examples of waste handling systems include: In Europe and a few other places around the world, a few communities use a proprietary collection system known as Invade, which conveys refuse via underground conduits using a vacuum system. Other vacuum-based solutions include the [emailprotected] [3] single-line and ring-line automatic waste collection system, here the waste is automatically collected through relatively small diameter flexible pipes from waste collection points spread out up to a distance of four kilometers from the waste collections stations. In Canadian urban centers curbside collection is the most common method of disposal, whereby the city collects waste and/or recyclables and/or organics on a scheduled basis. In rural areas people often dispose of their waste by hauling it to a transfer station. Waste collected is then transported to a regional landfill. In China, Plastic paralysis or Tire paralysis is: the process of converting waste lactic/tires into industrial fuels like paralysis oil, carbon black and hydrocarbon gas. End products are used as industrial fuels for producing heat, steam or electricity. Paralysis plant is also known as: paralysis unit, plastic to fuel industry, tire to fuel industry, plastic and tire recycling unit etc. The system is used in USA California, Australia, Greece, Mexico, the united Kingdom and in Israel-For example, REESE paralysis plant that has been operational at Texas USA since December 2011, and processes up to 60 tons per day. [J In Taipei, the city government charges its households and industries for the volume of rubbish they produce. Waste will only be collected by the city council if waste is disposed in government issued rubbish bags. This policy has successfully reduced the amount of waste the city produces and increased the recycling rate. In Israel, the Arrow Ecology company has developed the Aerobic system, which takes trash directly from collection trucks and separates organic and inorganic materials through gravitational settling, screening, and hydro-mechanical shredding. The system is capable of sorting huge volumes of solid waste, salvaging recyclables, and running the rest into biogas and rich agricultural compost.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Do not shoot, it shouted

`Do not shoot, it shouted `I am a B-b-british object!. These are the first words spoken by the main character Gemmy in the novel Remembering Babylon. Gemmy Fairley enters the environment of a distant Australian settlement having spent 16 years of his life living with the aborigines. He has lost contact to his past British background, to his language and cultural identity. In the Scottish settlement his past identity begins to reconstruct itself piece by piece, word by word. He struggles with familiar English words until whites avert their eyes, seeing in his search for simple sounds a sign of impairment or worse, of treason. In any case, it is a mark of otherness that subverts the settlers own identity. Gemmy compels them to ask themselves "Could you lose it? Not just language but it. It." (40) 16 years ago Gemmy was a "British object", he was still a boy until British seamen heaved him overboard near the coast of Australia sometime in the middle of the 19th century. Then he became an aboriginal object. Gemmys presence in the village makes the hardest men among them harder still. His indistinctness, his being neither one thing nor the other, in age, culture or appearance, his different consonants and different vowels seems more than imbecilic to the settlers, it seems monstrous. If his existence can be resolved at all in their minds it is that he must be a "blackfeller" disguised in white skin, a dangerous emissary of the outback. In unmasking themselves from the illusion of cultural objective truth, they would make progress and elevate the human nature. In the closeness of the settlers Gemmy tries to find his language and core identity, "It was as if the language these people spoke was an atmosphere they moved in. Just being in their proximity gave him access to it." (14) Gemmy believes that the words spoken by the settlers are the key to his lost language, and if he only c...

Sunday, February 23, 2020

HOW ARE FASHION AND APPEARANCE CENTRAL TO THE CONSTRUCTION OF SOCIAL Essay

HOW ARE FASHION AND APPEARANCE CENTRAL TO THE CONSTRUCTION OF SOCIAL IDENTITIES DISCUSS, WITH REFERENCE TO SPECIFIC EXAMPLES - Essay Example In understanding beauty and the sacrifices that are made for representing what is beautiful, it can be seen that most cultures have supported alterations of the body in order to attain the essence of beauty as it is defined within the social construct, creating identity and status through those sacrifices. The value of beauty is so high that great pain has been endured in order to attain that representation The concept of beauty would seem a simple concept to define, however beauty is sociologically relevant to the culture that defines it and has an evolving meaning that changes through time. At the center of modern Western society is the beauty salon. According to Black (2004), â€Å"The beauty salon stands at the intersection of a number of techniques of the body, which in turn relate to gender, the body, sexuality, class, commodification, leisure practices, consumption, and so on† (p. 7). Current Western society also supports the use of painful surgical remedies to alter th e physical form and create a more beautified appearance. However, pain has been collateral to many of the ways in which beauty has been chased throughout the centuries. While contemporary society may frown upon some of the methods that have been used throughout history, the current trends are actually a continuation of culturally accepted concepts of the discomfort and pain that can be experienced in the pursuit of what is physically beautiful. The Beauty Salon in Western Society The core of the creation of beautiful through physical change within contemporary Western society is the beauty salon, a place where the hair, skin, and nails are attended to in order to project a more beautiful exterior presence. The salon is a social center, as much as it is a utilitarian entity. According to Black (2004), as she quotes Yvette, an owner of a salon, â€Å"Ordinary people come through here The desire of these ‘ordinary people’ is for pleasure and escapism† (p. 2). While what is done there occurs in order to emerge into society with the intention of the results having an impact on the way in which one is viewed, what happens within the salon is as much a part of the identity as the effect of the result. A relationship is developed between the staff and the client, a connection that is made in order to form a social contract where the professional expertise of the staff member becomes the center of the development of an intimacy with the client, the commodified relationship as emotional as it is purposeful. Often the relationship that one has to their beauty professional is as much emotionally therapeutic as it is physically therapeutic (Black 2004, p. 7). What occurs within the salon is often uncomfortable, if not painful, that level of suffering helping to form the bond between the beauty professional and the client. What is experienced and sacrificed in order to attain the result helps to create the intimacy through which the social contract is es tablished. Furthermore, there is a sexuality that is established within the confines of the experience. The salon professional often must inflict pain in a very intimate way in order to achieve the goals of the session. The pain is endured, the recipient developing a dependency on the one inflicting pain as the release of that sensation is within the control of the professional. This pain can become a deep resource of connectivity between the one inflicti